Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary
The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is a non-use conservation area and biosphere reserve in the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India.
The conservation area was created in 1999 by the Indian government. UNESCO designated a biosphere reserve in 2009.
The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is located within areas of Hoshangabad, Betul, and Chhindwara Districts in Madhya Pradesh state.in India
The biosphere reserve’s total area is 4,926.28 square kilometres (1,217,310 acres). It includes three wildlife conservation units:
Bori Sanctuary (518.00 km2)london
Pachmarhi Sanctuary (461.37 km2).
Satpura National Park (524.37 km2)
Satpura National Park is designated as the core zone and the remaining area of 4401.91 km2, including the Bori and Pachmarhi sanctuaries, serves as the buffer zones.
Pachmarhi is a hill station in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. It has been the location of a cantonment (Pachmarhi Cantonment) since British Raj. It is widely known as Satpura ki Rani (“Queen of Satpura”), situated at a height of 1100 m in a valley of the Satpura Range in Hoshangabad district. Dhupgarh, the highest point (1,350 m) in Madhya Pradesh and the Satpura range, is located here.
The name Pachmarhi is believed to be derived from the Hindi words Panch (“five”) and Marhi (“caves”). According to a legend, these caves were built by five Pandava brothers of Mahabharatha era during their fourteen years of exile. The caves are situated on a hilltop and provide an excellent vantage point.
British arrival, Pachmarhi region came under the kingdom of the Gond king Bhawut Singh, although it was a populated village or town at that time. Captain James Forsyth of the British Army along with Subhedar Major Nathoo Ramji Powar who was later made the Kotwal (Incharge of the armoury (Koth)of Pachmarhi, spotted the plateau in the Pachmarhi region in 1857, while leading his troops on the way to Jhansi. It quickly developed into hill station and sanatorium for British troops in the Central Provinces of India.
The population in 1901 was 3,020, rising to double that number in the hot summer months. Pachmarhi also served as the summer capital for the Central Provinces.
The forest around the town is home to many rare varieties of plants. UNESCO added Pachmarhi park to its list of Biosphere Reserves in May 2009. The total area of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is 4981.72 km2. It covers parts of three civil districts, viz., Hoshangabad (59.55%),Chhindwara (29.19%) and Betul (11.26%). It includes three wildlife conservation units viz., Bori Sanctuary 485.72 km2), Satpura National Park (524.37 km2) and Pachmarhi Sanctuary (491.63 km2). These altogether has also been notified as Satpura Tiger Reserve (1501.72 km2).
Pachmarhi also has a lot of cave paintings in the forests, some of which have been estimated to be as much as 10,000 years old. Shown in the picture is the garden at the base of a tourist attraction called Pandava Caves. The caves are Buddhist in origin but the name persists. The place has rich timber reserves including teak, but being a part of a reserve no new construction or felling of trees is allowed. Having a rich and rare flora as well as fauna, Pachmarhi needs central and state government approval for any new construction outside the town area.
Large mammal species include tiger, leopard, wild boar, gaur (Bos gaurus), chital deer (Axis axis), muntjac deer, sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), and rhesus macaques.
The endemic fauna includes chinkara, nilgai, wild dogs, the Indian wolf, bison, Indian giant squirrels, and flying squirrels.
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