Pakhui (Pakke Tiger Reerve) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakhui Tiger Reserve is a Project Tiger tiger reserve in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. The 862 square kilometres (333 sq mi) reserve is protected by the Department of Environment and Forest of Arunachal Pradesh. In a notification (CWL/D/26/94/1393-1492 Dated Itanagar the 19th April’2001) issued by the Principal Secretary the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh renamed Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary as Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary Division.
This Tiger Reserve has won India Biodiversity Award 2016 in the category of ‘Conservation of threatened species’ for its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme.
Introduction: Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakke Tiger Reserve falls in the East Kameng district. Its Southern border merges with the inner line, State borderline between Assam and Arunachal. The tract of the protected area falls within the land area of Pakke river and Kameng river. It has an area of 861.95 Sq.Km with geographical variations of terai and rugged siwalik ranges. After a drive of about 3 hrs. from Itanagar through NH52 one reaches to a point known as CHHAIBARI and the take a right turn, passing through the plains, tea gardens and newly devastated forest vegetation of Assam covering a distance of 28 Km comes Seijusa in Arunachal. It is the Divisional HQ of Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary. Seijusa, is a small rural village with some Govt. Establishments and settlements. The beauty of this place is that though there are settlements, establishments yet the rural look, the greenery persists. The air is clear free from dust and pollution. The Pakke river flows down through this area which ultimately meets with the Jiya varali in Assam. The contrast one finds while approaching through Assam is that having a sad look of destruction of vegetation by encroachment suddenly you reach to a place where the lush green vegetation welcomes you giving a pleasure and forget the fatigue of Journey that one passed through the Indian condition of road. The Divisional establishment is on the East Bank of the Pakke river. On the west Bank through a small dam, crossing the river and a furlong through Nameri Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam you reach at the gate of Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary (861.95 Sq.Km). The establishment of Range Officer (Wildlife), Seijusa consists of the Range office, staff quarters, a Rest house of transit officers. There is one raised temporary shade ideal with the natural surroundings. A few display of caged animals for the visitors has been kept. A road of 12 Km leads to a place known as Khari, a beat establishment with a transit accommodation deep inside the Sanctuary. The 12 Km fair weather road needs maintenance after a rainy season which is the only approach to the place Khari.
Barking deer and Hog deer: The population is quite optimum to support the population of tiger. At present there has no incident or report of hunting of animal due to correct approach taken by the Sanctuary authority. The village, which existed inside the sanctuary area, had been shifted to the other side of the Pakke River under Centrally Sponsored Scheme. This shifting and re-settlement was done with the total cooperation from the villagers. There are more success stores in this part of wildlife areas. The tribal population used to wear the head-gear (cap) with the beak of hornbill. Even the meat of the bird was a delicacy to them. But with the motivation of the Sanctuary authority and with the help of local leader, an institutional out look and norms have taken place. The tribal have decided not to hunt any animals or birds and a substitution of plastic made hornbill beak has been accepted by the local society. Even they have taken a decision to impose heavy fine on the person who would be caught for committing such offence. This has been taken and accepted with the traditional culture of the tribal. The active participation with a shift from the traditional culture needs to be appreciated and recognized. There was a firing range for Indian army in the past. The site now looks with open grounds and added a site for the activity of wild animals creating more of edge effect in the sanctuary area. At the down stream of Pakke river the ecosystem support of nutrition cycle one can notice, which once upon a time was very common in the rural Indian, scenario. Fishing of small fishes with hook and other country devices was a system of food collection of the poor mass from water bodies along the railways, roads etc. but now due to the different development process and expansion of urban areas the system has broken down. But here one can notice in the afternoon and evening the village women with a plate covered with cloth with a small hole are busy in fishing small fishes. An interesting role and technique they play for fishing, which is, sufficient for a day meal. Such river and watercourse is the lifeline of this natural system. The sources of such water bodies are the catchments, with in the Sanctuary. Such social needs and factors are totally dependable on the management of Sanctuary, which if once disturbed and damages, can’t be restored back by spending money of any magnitude. This land has this unique attitude and playing a great role to hand over the asset, which was received from our past generation, to the next generation.
Vegetation: The area being at the foot hills includes a portion of valley and riverine areas, has a peculiar association of species. Passing through the stretch of Northern tropical semi evergreen forest one gradually notices the change in the ecological condition of the vegetation representing the Northern tropical evergreen forests. Most of the hill slopes and upper reaches the vegetation is more of evergreen where as along the river course for a few distance the vegetation is more of riverine and deciduous, occasionally meeting with cane and Bamboo breaks. Humid condition provides a room for the growth of epiphytes, mosses, ferns etc. the lofty tree trunk covered with varieties of lichen and moss gives a niche for orchids, which are quite common at sight while passing through the forests. Some of the species of trees as one comes across during a journey in the area of the Sanctuary area, such as, Tetrameles nudiflora, Terminalia myriocarpa, Stereospermum chelonioides, Dellenia indica, Duabanga grandiflora, Albizzia procera, Artocarpus chapalasa, Lagerstromea speciosa, Leaecarpus granitrus, Michelia champaca, Mesua ferra, Gmelina arborea, Cassua fustula, Trewia nudiflora, Kydia calycina, Sterculia villosa, Anthocephalus kadamba etc.
Ground flora: Hollerihna antidicentrica, Urena lobata, Lea Indica, Eupotorium odaratum etc.
Climbers: Dioscoria spp. combriatum decumdrum – etc.
Fauna: It is so common to sight Horn Bill, it was noticed that a tree of Albizzia was crowded with as many 29 Hornbills. Even seating at any place to sight gliding of great Hornbill is a matter of joy and pleasure at this place. The hornbill is one of the birds has very interesting habits. It lays eggs inside the holes in a tall tree. The female incubates the eggs until they hatch, while the male seals the entrance to the nest with mud and twigs. It keeps only a tiny aperture to feed its partner. During this time, the male bird fetches food and feed its partner every few minutes. The female can only come out when the male breaks open the entrance of the hole – only when the chicks are ready to fly. It is very much necessary to preserve such tall trees in the forest for giving proper habitat to hornbill. Elephant is very common on this part. It is the ideal home for elephant and most of such population is resident. As the area has no settlement except on the bank of the Pakke River, so there is little or no such incident of man – elephant conflicts as it is very common in the other parts of the country. Tiger the king of the forest has his territory with all the bases and segments of the biological pyramid. It is known that tiger cannot survive, in isolation and its is the habitat which is more important to preserve for the management of tiger.
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